There are long-standing conspiracy theories about the cancellation of the Flying Wing program; specifically, an accusation from Jack Northrop that Secretary of the Air Force Stuart Symington attempted to coerce him to merge his company with the Atlas Corporation-controlled Convair.
In a taped interview, Jack Northrop claimed the Flying Wing contract was cancelled because he would not agree to a merger because Convair's merger demands were "grossly unfair to Northrop. Symington became president of Convair after he left government service a short time later. Other observers note that the B and B designs had well-documented performance and design issues while the Convair B needed more development money. The Northrop Corporation was always a technological trailblazer but the independent nature of Jack Northrop often collided with the political wheeling-and-dealing in Washington that tended to run huge military allocations.
Consequently, the B prevailed, with just over aircraft built. Furthermore, earlier the same year, when the YB jet bomber was cancelled, Northrop received a smaller production contract for its F Scorpion fighter as compensation for the lost Flying Wing contract. Alloy An alloy is a combination of metals and of a metal or another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a mixture of metallic phases. Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined crystal structure. Zintl phases are sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types. Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications.
In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel, brass, duralumin and amalgams ; the alloy constituents are measured by mass percentage for practical applications, in atomic fraction for basic science studies. Alloys are classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy, they can be heterogeneous or intermetallic.
An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements, which forms an impure substance that retains the characteristics of a metal. An alloy is distinct from an impure metal in that, with an alloy, the added elements are well controlled to produce desirable properties, while impure metals such as wrought iron are less controlled, but are considered useful. Alloys are made by mixing two or more elements, at least one of, a metal; this is called the primary metal or the base metal, the name of this metal may be the name of the alloy.
The other constituents may or may not be metals but, when mixed with the molten base, they will be soluble and dissolve into the mixture; the mechanical properties of alloys will be quite different from those of its individual constituents. A metal, very soft, such as aluminium , can be altered by alloying it with another soft metal, such as copper. Although both metals are soft and ductile , the resulting aluminium alloy will have much greater strength. Adding a small amount of non-metallic carbon to iron trades its great ductility for the greater strength of an alloy called steel.
Due to its very-high strength, but still substantial toughness, its ability to be altered by heat treatment, steel is one of the most useful and common alloys in modern use. By adding chromium to steel, its resistance to corrosion can be enhanced, creating stainless steel, while adding silicon will alter its electrical characteristics, producing silicon steel.
Like oil and water, a molten metal may not always mix with another element. For example, pure iron is completely insoluble with copper; when the constituents are soluble, each will have a saturation point, beyond which no more of the constituent can be added. Iron, for example, can hold a maximum of 6. Although the elements of an alloy must be soluble in the liquid state, they may not always be soluble in the solid state.
If the metals remain soluble when solid, the alloy forms a solid solution, becoming a homogeneous structure consisting of identical crystals, called a phase. If as the mixture cools the constituents become insoluble, they may separate to form two or more different types of crystals, creating a heterogeneous microstructure of different phases, some with more of one constituent than the other phase has. However, in other alloys, the insoluble elements may not separate until after crystallization occurs. If cooled quickly, they first crystallize as a homogeneous phase, but they are supersaturated with the secondary constituents; as time passes, the atoms of these supersaturated alloys can separate from the crystal lattice, becoming more stable, form a second phase that serve to reinforce the crystals internally.
Some alloys, such as electrum , an alloy consisting of silver and gold, occur naturally. Meteorites are sometimes made of occurring alloys of iron and nickel , but are not native to the Earth. One of the first alloys made by humans was bronze, a mixture of the metals tin and copper. Bronze was an useful alloy to the ancients, because it is much stronger and harder than either of its components. Steel was another common alloy. However, in ancient times, it could only be created as an accidental byproduct from the heating of iron ore in fires during the manufacture of iron.
Other ancient alloys include pewter and pig iron. In the modern age, steel can be created in many forms. Carbon steel can be made by varying only the carbon content, producing soft alloys like mild steel or hard alloys like spring steel. Alloy steels can be made by adding other elements, such as chromium, vanadium or nickel, resulting in alloys such as high-speed steel or tool steel.
Small amounts of manganese are alloyed with most modern steels because of its ability to remove unwanted impurities, like phosphorus and oxygen , which can have detrimental effects on the alloy. However, most alloys were not created until the s, such as various aluminium, titanium and magnesium alloys; some modern superalloys , such as incoloy and hastelloy , may consist of a multitude of different elements.
As a noun, the term alloy is used to describe a mixture of atoms in which the primary constituent is a metal; when used as a verb, the term refers to the act of mixing a metal with other elements. The primary metal is called the matrix, or the solvent ; the secondary constituents are called s. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources.
World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China , it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust , strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan , which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by , though neither side had declared war on the other. From late to early , in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe , formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan.
Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa , the fall of France in mid , the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. On 22 June , the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union , opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht , into a war of attrition. Following an immediate U. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in Key setbacks in , which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts.
In , the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France , while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During and the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China , South China and Burma , while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively.
With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria , Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August , cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts.
The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September , beginning with the German invasion of Poland.
The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July , or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September Others follow the British historian A. Taylor , who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in ; this article uses the conventional dating.
The B is the largest mass-produced piston-engined aircraft built, it had the longest wingspan of any combat aircraft built, at ft. The B was the first bomber capable of delivering any of the nuclear weapons in the U. With a range of 10, mi and a maximum payload of 87, lb, the B was capable of intercontinental flight without refuelling. Entering service in , the B was the primary nuclear weapons delivery vehicle of Strategic Air Command until it was replaced by the jet-powered Boeing B Stratofortress beginning in All but five examples were scrapped; the genesis of the B can be traced to early , prior to the entry of the United States into World War II.
At the time it appeared there was a real chance that Britain might fall to the German "Blitz", making a strategic bombing effort by the United States Army Air Corps against Germany impossible with the aircraft of the time. The United States would need a new class of bomber which would reach Europe and return to bases in North America , necessitating a combat range of at least 5, miles, the length of a Gander , Newfoundland—Berlin round trip.
The USAAC therefore sought a bomber of intercontinental range, similar to the German Reichsluftfahrtministerium's ultra-long-range Amerikabomber program, the subject of a page proposal submitted to Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering on May 12, ; the USAAC sent out the initial request on 11 April , asking for a mph top speed, a mph cruising speed, a service ceiling of 45, ft, beyond the range of ground-based anti-aircraft fire, a maximum range of 12, miles at 25, ft.
These requirements proved too demanding for any short-term design—far exceeding the technology of the day— so on 19 August they were reduced to a maximum range of 10, mi, an effective combat radius of 4, mi with a 10, lb bombload, a cruising speed between and mph, a service ceiling of 40, ft, above the maximum effective altitude of all of Nazi Germany's anti-aircraft Flak guns, save for the deployed As the Pacific war progressed, the air force needed a bomber capable of reaching Japan from its bases in Hawaii , the development of the B resumed in earnest.
Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson , in discussions with high-ranking officers of the USAAF , decided to waive normal army procurement procedures, on 23 July — some fifteen months after the Germans' Amerikabomber proposal's submission made it to their RLM authority; the first delivery was due in August , the last in October , but Consolidated delayed delivery. The aircraft was unveiled on 20 August , flew for the first time on 8 August After the establishment of an independent United States Air Force in , the beginning in earnest of the Cold War with the Berlin Airlift , the atmospheric test of the first Soviet atomic bomb, American military planners sought bombers capable of delivering the large and heavy first-generation atomic bombs; the B was the only American aircraft with the range and payload to carry such bombs from airfields on American soil to targets in the USSR.
The modification to allow the use of larger atomic weapons on the B was called the " Grand Slam Installation". The B was arguably obsolete from the outset, being piston-powered, coupled with the widespread introduction of first generation jet fighters in potential enemy air forces, but its jet rival, the Boeing B Stratojet , which did not become operational until , lacked the range to attack the Soviet homeland from North America without aerial refueling and could not carry the huge first-generation Mark 16 hydrogen bomb.
The other American piston bombers of the day, the B and B, were too limited in range to be part of America's developing nuclear arsenal.
Intercontinental ballistic missiles did not become sufficiently reliable until the early s; until the Boeing B Stratofortress became operational in , the B, as the only intercontinental bomber, continued to be the primary nuclear weapons delivery vehicle of the Strategic Air Command. Convair touted the B as the " aluminum overcast", a so-called "long rifle" giving SAC global reach. Its maximum payload was more than four times that of the B, exceeded that of the B ; the B was slow and could not refuel in midair, but could fly missions to targets 3, miles away and stay aloft as long as 40 hours.
Moreover, the B was believed to have "an ace up its sleeve": a phenomenal cruising altitude for a piston-driven aircraft, made possible by its huge wing area and six cylinder engines, putting it out of range of most of the interceptors of the day, as well as ground-based anti aircraft guns. Fatigue material In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by applied loads. It is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading; the nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage may be much less than the strength of the material quoted as the ultimate tensile stress limit, or the yield stress limit.
Fatigue occurs when a material is unloading. If the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to form at the stress concentrators such as the surface, persistent slip bands, interfaces of constituents in the case of composites, grain interfaces in the case of metals. A crack will reach a critical size, the crack will propagate and the structure will fracture; the shape of the structure will affect the fatigue life.
Round holes and smooth transitions or fillets will increase the fatigue strength of the structure; the American Society for Testing and Materials defines fatigue life, Nf, as the number of stress cycles of a specified character that a specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs. For some materials, notably steel and titanium , there is a theoretical value for stress amplitude below which the material will not fail for any number of cycles, called a fatigue limit, endurance limit, or fatigue strength.
Engineers have used any of three methods to determine the fatigue life of a material: the stress-life method, the strain-life method, the linear-elastic fracture mechanics method. One method to predict fatigue life of materials is the Uniform Material Law. UML was developed for fatigue life prediction of aluminium and titanium alloys by the end of 20th century and extended to high-strength steels, cast iron.
In metal alloys, for the simplifying case when there are no macroscopic or microscopic discontinuities, the process starts with dislocation movements at the microscopic level, which form persistent slip bands that become the nucleus of short cracks. Macroscopic and microscopic discontinuities as well as component design features which cause stress concentrations are common locations at which the fatigue process begins.
Fatigue is a process that has a degree of randomness showing considerable scatter in identical samples in well controlled environments. Fatigue is associated with tensile stresses but fatigue cracks have been reported due to compressive loads; the greater the applied stress range, the shorter the life. Fatigue life scatter tends to increase for longer fatigue lives. Damage is cumulative. Materials do not recover. Fatigue life is influenced by a variety of factors, such as temperature, surface finish, metallurgical microstructure , presence of oxidizing or inert chemicals, residual stresses, scuffing contact, etc; some materials exhibit a theoretical fatigue limit below which continued loading does not lead to fatigue failure.
High cycle fatigue strength can be described by stress-based parameters. A load-controlled servo-hydraulic test rig is used in these tests, with frequencies of around 20—50 Hz. Other sorts of machines—like resonant magnetic machines—can be used, to achieve frequencies up to Hz. Low cycle fatigue is associated with localized plastic behavior in metals. Testing is conducted with constant strain amplitudes at 0. He devised a test machine for conveyor chains used in the Clausthal mines. The Versailles train wreck was caused by fatigue failure of a locomotive axle.
He identifies the keyway as the crack origin. It was a fatigue failure. He concludes that cyclic stress range is more important than peak stress and introduces the concept of endurance limit. Cadwell publishes first rigorous study of fatigue in rubber. Miner popularises Palmgren's linear damage hypothesis as a practical design tool. Weibull An S-N curve model. Convair Convair Consolidated Vultee , was an American aircraft manufacturing company that expanded into rockets and spacecraft. The company was formed in by the merger of Vultee Aircraft. In it was purchased by General Dynamics , operated as their Convair Division for most of its corporate history.
Convair is best known for its military aircraft, it manufactured the first Atlas rockets, including the rockets that were used for the manned orbital flights of Project Mercury. The company's subsequent Atlas-Centaur design continued this success and derivatives of the design remain in use as of ; the company entered the jet airliner business with its Convair and Convair designs. These were smaller than contemporary aircraft like the Boeing and Douglas DC-8 , but somewhat faster than either; this combination of features failed to find a profitable niche and the company exited the airliner design business.
However, the manufacturing capability built up for these projects proved profitable and the company became a major subcontractor for airliner fuselages. In most of the company's divisions were sold by General Dynamics to McDonnell Douglas and Lockheed, with the remaining components deactivated in The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation, whose name was in the course of time changed to Convair, was an American aircraft and spacecraft company for the design and manufacturing of aerospace products, it existed as a company from until , although the Consolidated Aircraft company existed before that, Consolidated produced important aircraft in the early years of World War II the B Liberator heavy bomber and the PBY Catalina seaplane for the U.
Navy , the Royal Canadian Air Force , the British flying forces, others; the Catalina remained in production through May , more than 4, were built. What was soon called "Convair", was created in by the merger of the Consolidated Aircraft Company and the Vultee Aircraft Company; this merger produced a large airplane company, ranked fourth among United States corporations by value of wartime production contracts, higher than the giants like Douglas Aircraft and Lockheed.
Convair always had most of its research and manufacturing operations in San Diego County of Southern California , nearby counties, though other locations were involved as well. In March , all of the Convair company was bought by the General Dynamics Corporation, a conglomerate of military and high-technology companies, it became the Convair Division within General Dynamics. After the beginning of the Jet Age of military fighters and bombers, Convair was a pioneer of the delta-winged aircraft design, along with the French Dassault aircraft company, which designed and built the Mirage fighter planes.
The Atlas missile, the F Delta Dagger and F Delta Dart delta-winged interceptors, the delta-winged B Hustler supersonic intercontinental nuclear bomber were all Convair products. For a period of time in the s, Convair manufactured its own line of jet commercial airliners, the Convair and Convair , but this did not turn out to be profitable. In the s Convair shifted money and effort to its missile and rocket projects, producing the Terrier missile ship-launched surface-to-air system for the U.
Navy during the s and s. Air Force , it was replaced in by the room-temperature liquid-fueled Titan II missile and the solid-fueled Minuteman missile. The Atlas rocket transitioned into a civilian launch vehicle and was used for the first orbital manned U. The Atlas rocket became a reliable booster for launching of satellites and continued to evolve, remaining in use into the 21st century, when combined with the Centaur upper stage to form the Atlas-Centaur rocket for launching geosynchronous communication satellites and space probes; the Centaur rocket was designed and produced by Convair, it was the first used outer space rocket to use the all-cryogenic fuel-oxidizer combination of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The use of this liquid hydrogen — liquid oxygen combination in the Centaur was an important direct precursor to the use of the same fuel-oxidizer combination in the Saturn S-II second stage and the Saturn S-IVB third stage of the gigantic Saturn V moon rocket of the Apollo project; the S-IVB had earlier been used as the second stage of the smaller Saturn IB rocket, such as the one used to launch Apollo 7. The Centaur upper stage was first designed and developed for launching the Surveyor lunar landers, beginning in , to augment the delta-V of the Atlas rockets and give them enough payload capability to deliver the required mass of the Surveyors to the Moon.
Aspect ratio aeronautics In aeronautics, the aspect ratio of a wing is the ratio of its span to its mean chord. It is equal to the square of the wingspan divided by the wing area. Thus, a long, narrow wing has a high aspect ratio, whereas a short, wide wing has a low aspect ratio. A large wingspan affects a large cylinder of air, a small wingspan affects a small cylinder of air. A small air cylinder must be pushed down with a greater power than a large cylinder in order to produce an equal upward force; this is because giving the same momentum change to a smaller mass of air requires giving it a greater velocity change, a much greater energy change because energy is proportional to the square of the velocity while momentum is only linearly proportional to the velocity.
The aft-leaning component of this change in velocity is proportional to the induced drag, the force needed to take up that power at that airspeed. The interaction between undisturbed air outside the cylinder of air, the downward-moving cylinder of air occurs at the wingtips and can be seen as wingtip vortices , it is important to keep in mind that this is a drastic oversimplification, an airplane wing affects a large area around itself. Although a long, narrow wing with a high aspect ratio has aerodynamic advantages like better lift-to-drag-ratio, there are several reasons why not all aircraft have high aspect wings: Structural: A long wing has higher bending stress for a given load than a short one and therefore requires higher structural-design specifications.
Longer wings may have some torsion for a given load, in some applications this torsion is undesirable. Maneuverability: a low aspect-ratio wing will have a higher roll angular acceleration than one of high aspect ratio, because a high-aspect-ratio wing has a higher moment of inertia to overcome. In a steady roll, the longer wing gives a higher roll moment because of the longer moment arm of the aileron.
Low aspect ratio wings are used on fighter aircraft, not only for the higher roll rates, but for longer chord and thinner airfoils involved in supersonic flight. Parasitic drag: While high aspect wings create less induced drag, they have greater parasitic drag; this is. Due to the effects of Reynolds number, the value of the section drag coefficient is an inverse logarithmic function of the characteristic length of the surface, which means that if two wings of the same area are flying at equal speeds and equal angles of attack, the section drag coefficient is higher on the wing with the smaller chord.
However, this variation is small when compared to the variation in induced drag with changing wingspan. For example, the section drag coefficient c d of a NACA airfoil is inversely proportional to chord length to the power 0. Practicality: low aspect ratios have a greater useful internal volume, since the maximum thickness is greater, which can be used to house the fuel tanks, retractable landing gear and other systems. Airfield Size: Airfields and other ground equipment define a maximum wingspan , which cannot be exceeded, to generate enough lift at the given wingspan, the aircraft designer has to lower the aspect-ratio and increase the total wing area; this limits the Airbus A to 80m wide with an aspect ratio of 7.
Aircraft which approach or exceed the speed of sound sometimes incorporate variable-sweep wings; these wings a low aspect ratio at maximum sweep. In subsonic flow, steeply swept and narrow wings are inefficient compared to a high-aspect-ratio wing. However, as the flow becomes transonic and supersonic, the shock wave first generated along the wing's upper surface causes wave drag on the aircraft, this drag is proportional to the span of the wing. Thus a long span, valuable at low speeds, causes excessive drag at supersonic speeds. By varying the sweep the wing can be optimised for the current flight speed; however the extra weight and complexity of a moveable wing mean that it is not used.
The aspect ratios of birds' and bats' wings vary considerably. Birds that fly long distances or spend long periods. Northrop N-9M The Northrop N-9M is an one-third scale, ft span all-wing aircraft used for the development of the full size, ft wingspan Northrop XB and YB flying wing long-range, heavy bomber. First flown in , the N-9M was the third in a lineage of all-wing Northrop aircraft designs that began in when Jack Northrop succeeded in early experiments with his single pusher propeller , twin-tailed, twin-boom , all stressed metal skin Northrop Flying Wing XH monoplane , a decade the dual-propeller N-1M of — Northrop's pioneering all-wing aircraft would lead Northrop Grumman many years to develop the advanced B-2 Spirit stealth bomber, which debuted in the inventory of the US Air Force in On 30 October , the preliminary order for development of the B Flying Wing bomber was confirmed, including engineering and most a 60 ft wingspan, one-third scale aircraft, designated N-9M, it was to be used in gathering data on flight performance and for familiarizing pilots with the program's radical, all-wing design.
The first N-9M was ordered in the original contract, but this was expanded to three test aircraft in early A fourth was ordered a few months after a crash of the first N-9M destroyed that airframe; the four aircraft were designated N-9M-1, -2, -A, -B, respectively. The N-9M framework was constructed of wood to reduce its overall weight; the wings' outer surfaces were skinned with a strong, specially laminated plywood. The central section was made of welded tubular steel; the aircraft were powered by two hp Menasco C6S-1 " Buccaneer " inverted air-cooled straight-six engines, driving twin-bladed propellers, except for the N-9MB, powered by two hp Franklin XO engines.
During the next five months, 45 flights were made. Nearly all were terminated by various mechanical failures, the Menasco engines being the primary source of the problems. After The investigation found that Constant had suffered control reversal, the control column had been pressed against his chest during his recovery attempt from the steep spin, preventing him from parachuting to safety. Actions were taken to prevent it from happening on other N-9M test aircraft; when Northrop's Flying Wing bomber program was canceled, all remaining N-9M flight test aircraft, except for the final N-9MB, were scrapped.
For more than three decades, it deteriorated until the Chino, California Planes of Fame Air Museum acquired the aircraft in and began the labor-intensive restoration process. For the next two decades, former Northrop employees and other volunteers restored the N-9MB to its final flight configuration. Since , the yellow-and-blue Flying Wing has been exhibited, with flight demonstrations at several airshows every year. In April , the N-9MB suffered an in-flight engine fire.
The aircraft was landed safely with limited damage. Donations to the museum were solicited for its repair, the aircraft was repaired to flight status, it was flown again during the annual Chino airshow on 15—16 May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prototype military bomber aircraft by Northrop. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved: 29 January Retrieved: 4 January Retrieved: 27 August Allen, Francis. Air Enthusiast. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN Coleman, Ted. New York: Paragon House, Donald, David, ed. Gurney, Chan,? Hadden, John A. Hagen, Harold C. Hager, Dilworth, Haines, William W.
Hanner, Charles K. Harbold, Norris B. Harlan, John M. Harmon, Hubert, Harriman, Averell, Harriman, E. Roland, Harrington, Claude, Harris, Harold R. Hastings, K. Hazlehurst, Dorr, Hearst, William, Hedrick, William F. Henderson, Hope, Henderson, Walter, Henry, Draper F. Henschel, Harry D. Hensley, William H. Higgs, James H. Hilton, Frank R.
Hockman, David A. Hodges, James P. Holderman, E. Holliers, James P. Holman, Charles W. Hoover, Edwin H. Hoover, J. Edgar, Hope, William S. Hopkins, Frederick, Hopper, Bruce C. Hopwood, Lloyd P. Hornsby, Aubrey, Howard, Roy, Huff, S. Hughes, Louis R. Hughes, Richard D.
Hunter, Frank D. Jackson, William H. Jamieson, Edward, Jarvis, Clara L. Jenkins, John G. Johnson, Davenport, Johnson, Earle, Johnson, Harry A. Johnson, Herschel, Johnson, Leon W. Johnson, Leroy, Johnson, Louis A. Johnston, Gerald G. Johnston, W. Jolly, Edith D.
Jones, Curran L. Jones, George W. Jones, Homer, Jones, Robert C. Jouett, John H. Kachigin, Howard J. Kantor, Mackinlay, Kavanagh, E. Kearns, Edward P. Keighley, William,? Kelley, Howard A. Kelly, James J. Kennedy, Thomas H. Kenney, George C. Kenney, Lawrence A. Kenny, John P. Kepner, William E. Kerl, Mrs. Thomas T. Kern, Edward P. Kessler, Alfred A. Kight, Richard T. Kimball, Lindsley, Kingston, New York, Citizens of, Kinzie, George F.
reresadiqy.tk - Leading Supplier Of Military, Civilian And Commercial Aircraft Manuals
Kirkpatrick, Helen P. Kissner, A. Klette, Immanuel J. Kline, Allen B. Knerr, Hugh, , Krans, Walter F. Kriendler, Maxwell A. Kring, Mrs. Kuter, Laurence, Laffon, Marcel, Laughry, James D. Lauro, Frank, Law, H. Lawson, Lawrence A. Leach, W. Barton, Leflar, Robert A. Leitner, Charles, Leonard, Marston, Lessig, C.
Lewis, Edwin N. Lewis, William C. Lindley, Ernest K. Lindsay, Richard C. Lodwick, Albert I. Longfellow, Newton, Lovett, Robert A. Lowe, Thomas M.
Ludlam, Douglas G. Lumsden, Edith R. Luper, James R. Lynch, Edmund C. Lynd, William E. McAllister, Charles D. McAndrews, Captain, McCormick, John H. McCormick, Roger, McDonald, George C. McElroy, James K. McElroy, William, McGreevy, Mrs. Milton, McGuire, Jack, McKenzie, Arthur, McLaughry, James A. McNaughton, K.
- The Pseudo-Democrats Dilemma: Why Election Observation Became an International Norm.
- Sustainable fisheries management : Pacific salmon?
- 1940s United States bomber aircraft!
- Basic Electronics!
- Environmental Reviews!
- Navigation menu.
McReynolds, W. Manchester, MacArthur, Mannheimer, M. Martyn, John W. Masefield, Peter, Mason, G. Mattison, Graham, Mawefield, Peter, Maxwell, Alfred R. Maxwell, Howard H. Maylon, Charles, Mercer, H. Glenn, Mercer, Henry D. Merriman, Hazel, Messick, Allen G. Michel, E. Jules, Miller, Peter M. Milliken, Albert E. Milner, Fred C. Milstone, Maurice, Mobley, Radford, Montgomery, Henry G. Montgomery, J. Moore, Aubry L. Morgan, Herbert, Morrison, H. Terry, Mundy, George W. Munson, Henry L. Murphy, Charles, Murphy, James F. Myers, Charles T. Nacy, Richard R. National Broadcasting Company, Nazzaro, Joseph, Neblett, William H.
Neumann, Ruby A. Neville, Michael J. Newell, H. Nolan, F. Patrick, Nordenskiold, Bengt, Norstad, Lauris, Northrop, John K. Northwest Airlines, Inc. Noyes, Edgar T. Nugent, Richard E. O'Connor, Frederick, O'Daniel, W. Lee, Odell, Herman, Old, Archie J. Paley, William S. Palmer, Perrine, Pardridge, William D. Parham, Alfred H. Parks, Frederick L. Partridge, General, Patterson, Paul, Peabody, Hume, Pearcy, Charles G. Pearson, Frederick S. Perkinson, Allen C. Perry, Farwell W.
Peters, John, Picher, Oliver S. Pinkley, Virgil, Pittenger, James S.
Pitts, Younger A. Pizzuto, Joseph R. Plummer, Everett C. Plummer, William L. Pond, Everett L. Pool, J. Henry, Portal, Charles, Potter, Thomas K. Powell, Lewis F. Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, Preston, Maurice A. Proctor, Robert, Pryor, Robert N. Pulk, Eugene L. Quesada, Elwood R. Ramey, Roger M. Randall, Russell E. Randolph, Jennings, Reed, Walter J. Reynolds, E.
Reynolds, Harrison G. Rhine, Bertrand, Richards, J. Richards, Walter E. Richardson, John W. Ricks, Earl T. Riley, Mrs. Catherine, Ritchie, William, Robart, Ralph W. Roberts, Godfrey, Roberts, James E. Roberts, Thomas B. Robertson, Claude W. Rochester, Charles E. Rochford, E. Roosevelt, Elliott, Rose, Bernard C. Rosenblatt, Sol A. Rosser, William, Rostow, Walter, Royall, Kenneth C. Sagendorph, Kent, Salinas, Gustavo, Samarin, Timofei, Samford, John A.
Sams, William C. Santora, William, Saturday Evening Post, Saunders, Homer L. Saunders, La Verne, Saundling, Air Marshal, Scherer, Harris F. Schlatter, David M. Schroeder, Hugo, Schurter, Orie O. Seligson, William, Selway, Robert R. Seversky, Alexander de, Shattuck School, Shea, A. Sheffield, T. Sheldon, Huntington D.
Shepard, Gracie L. Sherburne, T. Sheridan, John E. Sherry, Alden, Simons, John H. Sims, T. Sleeper, Raymond S. Slessor, John C. Smart, Jacob E. Smethills, John A. Smith, Bettie, Smith, C. Smith, Constance, Smith, F. Smith, Fred, Smith, Leonard F.enter
Smith, Luther S. Smith, Rex, Smith, Robert J. Smith, Vernon L.
Snavely, Ralph A. Snyder, Fred, Snyder, Walter D. Sorensen, Colonel, Sorensen, E. Spaatz, Carl, Spaatz, Mrs. Carl, Spaight, R. Spivey, Delmar T. Stalder, Marvin F. Stalnaker, George W. Stark, John, Stark, Louis B. Stearley, Ralph, Stevenson, John D. Stewart, Senator, Stone, Charles B. Stovall, Howard, Stovall, Willaim H. Stratemeyer, George E. Sullivan, John Dwight, Summersby, Kathleen, Swanson, Gilbert C. Symington, W. Stuart, Tappan, Alan P. Taylor, Charles M. Taylor, Elizabeth, Taylor, Henry J. Taylor, Maxwell D. Thomas, Fay M. Thompson, Charles, Thornton, Charles B. Thruelsen, Richard, Tibier, Luciens, Tilley, Barbara, Tillinghast, T.
Timberlake, Patrick W. Todd, Raymond P. Todd, Walter E. Towle, Steward W. Trenchard, Lord, Truesdell, Karl, Tunner, William H. Turner, Howard M. Turner, Roscoe, Twining, N. Vanaman, A. VanCronkhite, John, Vandenberg, Hoyt, Van der Weil, J. Vincent, Clinton D. Vining, Robert E. Wainright, Jonathan, Walker, Kenneth M. Walker, Mrs. Walsh, Robert, Warner, Milo, Watt, Mrs. Weatherhead, Albert J. Weicker, Lowell, Welsh, William W. Wherry, Kenneth S. White, Thomas D. Whitehead, Mrs. Charles, Whitehead, Ennis, Whiting, Lawrence H. Whitney, John H.
Wickersham, Cornelius, Wilkins, Colonel, Williams, L. Kemper, Williams, Paul L. Williams, Robert B. Williamson, Charles G. Williamson, Glen, Williamson, R. Wilson, Delmar E. Wilson, James W. Winant, John G. Woodward, Helen, Wrigglesworth, William J. Wriston, Roscoe C. Yost, Emmett F. Yount, Barton K. Zagelow, George E. Zetzmann, William G. Zielinski, Constantine E. Chronological File, Index, June - December. January 27 - February 2. February 28 - March 3. Eighth Air Force, Headquarters File, Commanders' meetings, April-October. Fighters-on-hand estimates as of the first of the month, November - January.
Heavy bomber operational reporting, Industrial Damage Report No. Intelligence Operations Summaries, Media and press releases, Monthly Summary of Operations, December. New bombing technique, December. Operation "Starkey," August-September. Plan for Winter Operations, December - April. Eighth Bomber Command, Headquarters File, Bombardment Division Commanders meetings, July-December. Bremen Attack, October 8. Combat and Group Commanders meetings, minutes, First Bombardment Wing, reports of operations, German Air Force, status of, October.
Group Commanders meetings, minutes, April-August. Intelligence analysis, operations, September - January. Memoranda to the United States, Murphy, Charles, "Bombing," September Group bomb plots and summaries, Operations and missions, Seating arrangements at formal functions, September-October. Station Administrative Manual, April.
Tactical mission reports, September 9: Lille, Vitry-en-Artois, St. October 4: Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Saarlautern, St. Dizier, Sarrequemines, Saarbrucken. December Cognac, Paris, St. Jean d'Angeley, Landes de Bussac. Agenda for discussion with Air Marshal Portal at meeting scheduled for January 20, Air Intelligence Summaries, January. Griffith, May.
Centralization of control of the U. Army Air Forces operating in the war against Japan, November. Combined bomber offensive survey, July-August. Combined Strategic Targets Committee, January Command directives, Directorate of Operations, index of briefs for General Arnold. Eighth Air Force, Operations, April Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces, heavy bomber fighters, effective sorties and tonnage on targets, Evaluation of German Capabilities, Movement to the U. Plan for Winter Operations, October 9. Fighters, daily statistics, Flak Conference, March Incoming messages, April-July. Memoranda, January-July.
Mission orders, December - January. Director of Intelligence, Intelligence Summary No. Invasion activities, April-June. Outline Plan for Operation "Eclipse," February. French plans for air transport service between Paris and Calcutta, Intelligence services, November-December. Requirements for air bases, facilities and privileges for U. Operational directives, December - January. Photo mapping of Europe, Post-hostilities planning, August-September.
Report of Investigation of Tactical Bombing, July Requirements for air bases and privileges for U. Air Forces in Europe during the occupation period, Results of operations, Royal Air Force, No. Staff study on proposed transfer of Fifteenth Air Force units to U. Standard Operating Procedure, Eastern Command, undated. Statistical control, Bombing of Germany, Summary of Combat Crews, Army Air Forces in Europe, History, May-June. Subject File, Explosives and Terminal Ballistics.
Guidance and Homing of Missiles and Pilotless Aircraft. Air power articles, Air protection, relief, maintenance, and evacuation of prisoners of war, December. Air surrender documents, Aircraft status reports, Alaska Inspection, American-British strategy, November. Aircraft deliveries and production, Ordnance equipment, Organizational charts, Personnel, Officers, Schedules for aircraft and crews, Arnold, Henry H. Attacks against submarine manufacturing and operating installations, Automatic flight control equipment, bomb sights training, February.
Bessell Board Report, January. Bombardier and combat crew training, Bombardier training programs in the United States, Bombardment crews, Bombardment Groups, inspections, Bombardment Tactical Committee, Bomber offensive against Germany, undated. Bombing ability of the German Air Force, January. Bombing Accuracy Board, Bombing Board report on trip to England, December Bombing in Europe by U. Air Forces, s.
British bombing equipment and tactics, s. British Royal Air Force R. Carpet bombing, Combined bomber offensive, January. Combined bomber offensive from the United Kingdom, December. Command materials, Command of the U. Commendations, Control of strategic bomber forces in Europe following the establishment of Allied Forces on the continent, September.
Crimea Conference report, White House, February Estimated U. Navy carrier bomb tonnages on Japanese homeland for Fahey, James C. Flight manuals, models BC and BD bombardment airplanes. General supplies and relationship of depot supply to organization, undated. General Wedemeyer's idea, undated. German aircraft industry, German bombing of British Isles, October.
German strategy and capacity to resist, January. Handbook for Bombardiers, March Instruction programs for aerial bombardiers and pilots, Investigation of the "heavy" crossbow installations in Northern France - Report by the Sanders Mission to the chairman of the Crossbow Committee, February Massachusetts Institute of Technology, radio equipment studies, Maximum effort against Japan and Japanese shipping,